Identification of Phenol-Degrading Gene Metapyrocatechase in Acinetobacter oleivorans Strain GSN15
Author: F.Babazadeh, S.Gharavi, Z. Moosavi-Nejad
Phenol is one of the most common toxic environmental pollutants, which mainly originates from industrial processes, such as coking plants, industrial resin manufacturing, oil refineries, pharmaceuticals, plastic, and varnish industries, etc.
Phenol and its derivatives like dinitrophenol and pentachlorophenol are widely used as insecticides, but they are very toxic substances.
Phenol is a general protoplasmic poison with corrosive local effects that denature proteins.
Poisoning with phenol compounds may occur by ingestion, inhalation, and absorption through skin.
Bacteria can metabolize phenolic compounds under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
The critical step in the metabolism of aromatic compounds is the destruction of the resonance structure by hydroxylation and fission of the benzoid ring which is achieved by dioxygenase-catalyzed reactions in the aerobic systems.
Based on the substrate that is attacked by the ring cleaving enzyme dioxygenase, the aromatic metabolism can be grouped as catechol pathway, gentisate pathway, and proto catechaute pathway.
In all these pathways, the ring activation by the introduction of hydroxyl groups is followed by the enzymatic ring cleavage.
The ring fission products, then undergoes transformations leading to the general metabolic pathways of the organisms. Most of the aromatic catabolic pathways converge at catechol.
Catechols are formed as intermediates from a vast range of substituted and nonsubstituted mono and poly aromatic compounds.
Aerobically, phenol also is first converted to catechol, and subsequently, the catechol is degraded via ortho or meta fission to intermediates of central metabolism.
The initial ring fission is catalyzed by an ortho cleaving enzyme, catechol 1, 2 dioxygenase or by a meta cleaving enzyme catechol 2,3 dioxygenase, where the product of ring fission is a cis-muconic acid for the former and 2-hydro cis muconic semi aldehyde for the latter.
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